Mise en cluster d'Exchange 2007 sous Windows Server 2008

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Publi le : 24/05/2008 vers 17h
Mise jour le : 14/10/2011 vers 21h
Catgories :
  • Exchange

Auteur(s) :
Loc THOBOIS (Membre depuis le 04/09/2007)
Socit : AVAEDOS
Fonction : Consultant/Formateur
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Sada AZIRI (Membre depuis le 12/02/2007)
Socit : Microsoft
Fonction : Consultant
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1 Ce qu’il faut savoir avant tout

1.1 Pré-requis

L’installation d’Exchange 2007 sous Windows Server 2008 nécessite obligatoirement le service pack 1 d’exchange 2007.

Si vous ne disposez pas d’un cd intégrant directement le service pack, il vous sera nécessaire de télécharger l’archive d’Exchange 2007 intégrant le SP1 sur le site de microsoft et de l’utiliser pour l’installation (http://www.microsoft.com/downloads/details.aspx?FamilyId=44C66AD6-F185-4A1D-A9AB-473C1188954C&displaylang=en)

1.2 Avantages

L’association des deux produits facilite la mise en place d’Exchange 2007 et ajoute des fonctionnalités spécifiques à la mise en cluster :

Localisation des nœuds

Il est désormais possible de placer les nœuds d’un cluster à basculement (CCR ou SCC) dans plusieurs sous-réseaux différents.

Auparavant, les nœuds devaient tous être placés dans le même sous-réseau. Ainsi lors de la configuration d’un géo-cluster (dont les nœuds se trouvent sur des sites géographiquement distants), il était nécessaire de mettre en place une configuration VLAN étendue qui simulait une connectivité directe entre les nœuds du cluster en cachant les routeurs par lesquels les paquets passaient.

Dorénavant, une simple connectivité IP par le système de routage classique de l’entreprise suffira pour l’échange entre les nœuds, simplifiant d’autant l’architecture réseau pour mettre en place ce type de cluster.

DHCP pour IPv4

Il était jusqu’alors nécessaire d’assigner une adresse IP fixe pour les IP virtuelles des ressources du cluster.

Maintenant, cette ressource supporte la configuration DHCP en IP v4 permettant de centraliser la configuration IP sur le serveur DHCP.

Support d’IPv6

Windows 2008 intègre nativement IPv6 dans sa nouvelle pile TCP/IP. Ce support bénéficie à Exchange 2007 qui peut dorénavant communiquer via ce protocole.

Nouveaux modèles de quorum

Là ou il était nécessaire de jongler avec les patchs et les lignes de commandes sous Windows Server 2003, Windows Server 2008 permet une mise en place simple des quatre types de cluster suivants :

Majorité de nœuds : Cluster avec quorum à jeu de majorité ou quorum MNS (pour Majority Node Set). Ce type de cluster reste en ligne tant qu’une majorité des nœuds le composant est opérationnelle. Ainsi, un cluster à 4 nœuds fonctionne tant que 3 nœuds sur 4 sont opérationnels (si un deuxième nœud tombe en panne, la majorité absolue n’est plus atteinte et le service tombe).

Majorité de noeuds avec disque témoin : Cette configuration est proche de la précédente. La seule différence est l’ajout d’un témoin (un disque partagé de type NAS ou SAN) qui agira comme un nœud dans le calcul de la majorité. Cette configuration augmente le niveau de tolérance aux pannes. En effet un cluster à 4 nœuds restera en ligne tant que 2 des nœuds (plus le disque partagé) seront fonctionnels.

Majorité de noeuds avec partage de fichiers témoin : Cette configuration utilise un partage de fichiers en tant que témoin. Hormis cela, elle est identique à la précédente.

Pas de majorité, uniquement disque : Cette configuration utilise un quorum partagé (c’est-à-dire stocké sur un support de stockage de type NAS ou SAN). Cette implémentation est la seule ou le quorum n’est pas répliqué localement sur l’ensemble des nœuds ! Ce type de configuration n’implémente pas le principe de la majorité (un cluster à 4 nœuds reste fonctionnel tant qu’au moins un nœud est actif). Malheureusement ce système induit une unicité des données (si le support partagé est corrompu, le cluster est perdu !) et il devrait être de moins en moins utilisé dans les années à venir.

1.3 Le modèle mis en place

L’objectif de cet article est de présenter la mise en place d’un cluster du rôle MailBox d’Exchange 2007 de type CCR sous Windows Server 2008.

Voici une représentation compacte des différents composants nécessaires à sa mise en place :

Il est à noter que le domaine, le partage et les rôles Client Access et Hub Transport seront éclatés sur plusieurs serveurs lors de la mise en production de l’infrastructure.

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