[Active Directory] 7 Implémentation de sites pour gérer la réplication Active Directory

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Publié le : 15/06/2011 vers 17h
Mise à jour le : 11/10/2011 vers 20h
Catégories :
  • Active directory

Auteur(s) :
Loïc THOBOIS (Membre depuis le 04/09/2007)
Société : AVAEDOS
Fonction : Consultant/Formateur
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7.1 Fonctionnement de la réplication

Dans un domaine Windows 2008, un ou plusieurs contrôleurs de domaine hébergent la base de données Active Directory.

La réplication répercute les modifications apportées a la base de données Active Directory depuis un contrôleur de domaine sur tous les autres contrôleurs de domaine du domaine et ce, de façon transparente pour les administrateurs et les utilisateurs.

Cette réplication est qualifiée de multi maîtres car plusieurs contrôleurs de domaine (appelés maîtres ou répliquas) ont la capacité de gérer ou modifier les mêmes informations d’Active Directory.

La réplication peut se produire à différents moments.

Par exemple, lors de l’ajout d’objets sur un contrôleur de domaine, on peut dire que la copie de la base de données Active Directory qu’il contient a subit une mise à jour d’origine.

Lorsque cette mise à jour est répliquée sur un autre répliqua du domaine, on dira alors que ce dernier a effectué une mise à jour dupliquée.

La mise à jour effectuée sur le second contrôleur peut aussi être répliquée sur un troisième contrôleur de domaine.

Le processus de réplication n’intervient qu’entre deux contrôleurs de domaine à la fois.

Apres avoir apporté une modification sur un contrôleur de domaine, un temps de latence (par défaut 15 secondes) est observé avant d’envoyer un message de notification au premier partenaire de réplication. Chaque partenaire direct supplémentaire est informé 3 secondes (valeur par défaut) après la réception de la notification. Lorsqu’un partenaire de réplication est informé d’une modification apportée à la base, il récupère celle-ci depuis le contrôleur de domaine ayant émis la notification.

Dans certains cas, la notification de changement est immédiate, ainsi que la réplication. C’est le cas lors de la modification d’attributs d’objets considérés comme critiques du point de vue sécurité (par exemple, la désactivation d’un compte). On parle alors de réplication urgente.

Toutes les heures (valeur par défaut paramétrable), si aucune modification n’a été apportée à la base Active Directory, un processus de réplication est lancé. Ceci, pour s’assurer que la copie de la base de données Active Directory est identique sur tous les contrôleurs de domaine.

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