Résolution de noms d'hôtes à l'aide du système DNS

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Publié le : 21/10/2011 vers 3h
Mise à jour le : 21/10/2011 vers 3h
Catégories :
  • Windows Server

Auteur(s) :
Loïc THOBOIS (Membre depuis le 04/09/2007)
Société : AVAEDOS
Fonction : Consultant/Formateur
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1 Installation du service serveur DNS

1.1 Vue d’ensemble du système DNS

Le service de résolution de noms de Windows Server 2008 est nommé DNS (Domain Name System). Il permet de résoudre des adresses URL structurées comme www.egilia.com en adresse IP: 212.180.91.68.

Le système de noms DNS est une base de données distribuée, utilisée sur les réseaux IP pour transposer et résoudre les noms d’ordinateurs en adresses IP. C’est la principale méthode de résolution de noms sur une infrastructure Windows Server 2008 et sur Internet.

Le système de noms sur lequel est fondé DNS est une structure hiérarchique et logique appelée espace de noms de domaine. L’InterNIC (Internet Network Information Center) gère la racine de cette arborescence. L’InterNIC est chargé de déléguer la responsabilité administrative de portions de l’espace de noms de domaine mais aussi d’inscrire les noms de domaine.

1.2 Espace de noms de domaines

La structure hiérarchique de l’espace de noms de domaines est telle que :

  • Le domaine racine, qui se trouve en haut de la structure du nom de domaine, est représenté par un point.
  • Les domaines de niveau supérieur (premier niveau) suivent directement les domaines racines ; ils peuvent être représentés par le type d’organisation ou la localisation géographique (ex : com, org, fr, de, …)
  • Les domaines de second niveau (deuxième niveau) sont enregistrés directement auprès des entreprises et peuvent posséder de nombreux sous domaines.
  • Les sous-domaines permettent à une organisation de subdiviser encore son nom de domaine par départements ou services (ex : microsoft.egilia.com).

Le Nom de Domaine Pleinement Qualifié ou FQDN (Fully Qualified Domain Name) décrit la relation exacte entre un hôte et son domaine.

Dans les FQDN suivant : www.microsoft.learning.egilia.com, le domaine racine est le ‘.’ A partir de la droite du nom de domaine, le ‘.com’ est le nom de domaine de 1er niveau, le ‘egilia’ est le nom de domaine du deuxième niveau, le ‘learning’ est le nom de domaine du troisième niveau et le reste sont des sous domaines dans la présente arborescence de noms de domaines.

Le serveur DNS contient des informations sur la portion de l’espace de noms DNS qu’il va fournir au client. Le serveur DNS va stocker des noms / adresses IP de sa zone dans un fichier de zone. Lorsqu’un ordinateur client envoie une requête de résolution de nom à un serveur DNS, ce dernier va consulter sa base de données de noms et va, soit répondre au client s’il possède la correspondance nom / adresse IP, soit interroger les autres serveurs DNS en cas d’échec de la recherche dans sa base de données locale.

1.3 Convention d’appellation standard DNS

Les conventions liées à l’appellation standard DNS permettent à l’entreprise qui implémente un espace de noms de l’utiliser sur internet. Ces conventions autorisent un jeu de caractères ASCII limité spécifié par la RFC 1123 qui est :

  • A-Z
  • a-z
  • 0-9
  • Trait d’union (-)

1.4 Installation du service Serveur DNS

Il est nécessaire de configurer le futur serveur DNS pour qu’il utilise une adresse IP fixe au lieu d’une adresse attribuée dynamiquement par un serveur DHCP. Il faut pour cela configurer le protocole TCP/IP, et entrer une adresse statique dans la boite de dialogue Propriétés de protocole Internet. Microsoft recommande également de configurer le nom de domaine sur le serveur DNS, dans Propriétés de protocole Internet (TCP/IP).

L’installation se fait par l’intermédiaire d’un rôle dans l’outil d’administration DNS.

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