Comment utiliser la commande NSLookup

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Publié le : 02/06/2011 vers 19h
Mise à jour le : 02/07/2008 vers 16h
Catégories :
  • Windows
  • Windows Server

Auteur(s) :
Saïda AZIRI (Membre depuis le 12/02/2007)
Société : Microsoft
Fonction : Consultant
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NSLookup (Name Server Lookup) est une commande qui permet de tester la résolution des noms d'hôtes en adresses IP et inversement. Elle permet un rapide diagnostique des problèmes de résolution DNS.

Lorsque vous tapez nslookup dans une invite de commande, le nom d'hôte et l'adresse IP du serveur DNS sont affichées par défaut .

 

Lorsque l’on saisie un nom d'hôte ou un FQDN, une adresse IP est renvoyée.

 

De même si vous saisissez une adresse IP, nslookup renvoie le FQDN.

De plus Nslookup indique si la réponse fait autorité ou non sur le domaine.

Une réponse faisant autorité  (authoritative answer) signifie qu'une zone dns (donc un fichier sur le serveur DNS auquel on est connecté) contient le domaine sur lequel on effectue la  requête et qu'il n'y a donc pas besoin de récupérer l'information auprès d'une autorité racine ou de transférer la requête à un redirecteur.

Une réponse ne fait pas autorité ( Non-authoritative answer)  signifie que que l’information à été récupérée depuis un serveur DNS qui ne fait pas autorité sur la zone.

Dans cet exemple, nslookup fournit le nom et les adresses IP des serveurs de google.fr.

Par défaut la commande nslookup interroge le serveur DNS sur les enregistrements de type A (mappage entre un nom d'hôte et une adresse IPv4). Il est possible d’interroger le serveur DNS sur divers enregistrement en  utilisant la commande Set type = xx (remplacer xx par l’un des types suivants : MX, NS, A, SOA, CNAME, hinfo, any).

Une fois qu’on change le type de requête, les enregistrements retournés restent sur le type spécifié. Pour revenir sur les enregistrements de type A, tapez : Set-type = A ou fermer la fenêtre nslookup.

1.1 Set-type = MX

Recueillir des informations sur les enregistrements MX (serveurs de messagerie) :

> set type=MX
> gmail.com

  • Les deux premières lignes indique le nom et l’adresse IP du serveur DNS local.
  • Les cinq lignes suivantes montrent que le domaine gmail.com à 5 enregistrements MX. Les enregistrements MX possèdent une priorité, également appelé coût. Les mails sont envoyés au serveur ayant le coût le plus faible (5). S’il n’est pas joignable, les mails sont envoyés aux serveurs avec le coût juste au dessus (10).De même s’ils ne sont pas joignables, les serveurs avec un coût de 50 seront contactés.
  •  Les dernières lignes montrent les adresses IP des serveurs MX distants. ( On remarque les mêmes serveurs dans les 5 lignes précédentes).

1.2 Set type =NS

L’enregistrement de ressource de type NS (Name Server) identifie les serveurs DNS de la zone DNS. Permet d’identifier le Serveur de noms autoritaire pour un domaine ou l'enregistrement NS du domaine.

> Set type = NS
> microsoft.com

1.3 Set type =SOA

> Set type =SOA
> microsoft.com

 

  • Primary Name Server :  Nom du serveur qui héberge actuellement la zone DNS principale et qui fait autorité sur la zone DNS. Le nom doit être un FQDN.
     
  • Responsible mail addr : indique l’adresse email de la personne responsable de la zone. Attention, l’adresse doit être de type user.exemple.lanet non user@exemple.lan.
     
  • Serial : Il s’agit d’un numéro de série en 32 bit qui s’incrémente à chaque fois qu’une modification intervient sur le serveur. Ce numéro est de type : YYYYMMDDnn (Année, mois, jour, version). (Changement intervenu le 24 Juin 2008 en version 1). Si il y d’autre modification dans la même journée, le numéro de version s’incrémente.
     
  • Refresh :  Le nombre de seconde depuis que le second serveur à reçu une copie de la zone. Entre parenthèse est indiqué le temps avant la prochaine vérification pour obtenir une nouvelle copie.
     
  • Retry : Nombre de seconde que le premier serveur doit attendre dans le cas ou un refresh à échoué, avant d’effectuer un nouveau refresh avec un second serveur DNS.
     
  • Expire : Nombre de seconde avant qu’un serveur secondaire ne considère ses informations de zone comme n’étant plus autoritative. Si la copie que le serveur détient est plus vieille que 28 jours, elle est considérée comme invalide.
     
  • Default TTL (Time to live) =  Nombre définit en seconde, qu’un enregistrement de zone est valide dans le cache.

1.4 Set type =PTR

> Set type =PTR
> Adresse IP

Les enregistrements PTR(PoinTeRs, pointeurs ) sont des requêtes inversés vers des noms d'hôtes.

1.5 Set type =A

> set type=A 
> nom d’hote

Les enregistrements A(Adresses lookups) constituent le type de requêtes par défaut lorsqu’on lance nslookup. Ce sont requêtes directes, nom vers adresse IP.

1.6 Set type =CNAME

> set type=CNAME 
>
nom d’hôte

DNS permet d'attribuer des alias à une machine. Les enregistrements CNAME (Canonical NAME) sont utiles pour renvoyer le nom principal d’une machine.  

1.7 Set type =AAAA

Il est également possible d'obtenir des adresses IPv6 :

> set type=AAAA ou bien set type=any
> www.kame.net/

1.8 Set type =ANY

ANY est utilisé  pour retrouver tous les enregistrements.

Enfin pour quitter NSLookup, tapez exit.

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